What Is Crypto Mining and How Does It Work?

cryptocurrency miner

Unless you invest in cryptocurrency yourself, you might not realize that there’s more than one way to acquire crypto coins such as Bitcoin, Ethereum and Dogecoin. The most popular way is to buy them on exchanges. But you can also “mine” coins on your computer.

Whether you want to mine crypto for profit or just have an interest in the technology, you’ll need to understand some of the basics. Keep reading to more about crypto mining.

What Is Crypto Mining?

The simple way to think of crypto mining is that it’s a way to create new digital “coins.” But the simplicity ends there. To dig those coins up, you’ll need to solve complicated puzzles, validate cryptocurrency transactions on a blockchain network and including them to a distributed ledger.

Because digital platforms can be easily manipulated, additional security measures are put into place. For example, only verified miners can update transactions on Bitcoin’s ledger, which helps prevent double-spending.

Because distributed ledgers lack a central authority, mining is a key part of validating transactions. Miners are incentivized to secure the network by participating in the validation process and are then rewarded with newly minted coins.

Building Wealth

How Does Crypto Mining Work?

Crypto miners use their computers to solve complex mathematical equations, which basically means cracking codes. After you crack a code, you can authorize the transaction. In return, you earn cryptocurrency. When a miner successfully solves the math equation and verifies the transaction, they add the data to the public ledger, called the blockchain, which is secured by these many encryptions.

Proof of Work

To ensure that only verified crypto miners can mine and validate transactions, a proof-of-work consensus protocol is established. This protocol also ensures that the network is safe from any outside attacks.

A proof of work is necessary to publish the latest block in the chain. The work itself is done by miners whose computers perform millions of computations to change a given input into a required output. The first miner to produce the required output shares it with the network, which then double-checks to see if it’s functioning and performing correctly. If it does, the miner is rewarded with crypto.

How To Begin

The first thing you’ll need is a very powerful computer to handle all the bandwidth it takes to mine for crypto. After that, you’ll need to create a crypto “wallet.” Crypto wallets store your private keys – the passwords that give you access to cryptocurrencies – and keep them safe and accessible.

The next step is to join a mining pool to maximize profit potential. A mining pool is basically a group of miners who combine their resources to maximize their mining power. Any mining profits are distributed equally to pool members.

Different Mining Methods

Most cryptocurrency mining is done one of two ways: either with a specialized graphics processing unit, or GPU, or with an application-specific integrated circuit, or ASIC. Here’s a quick look at both.


In this method, computational power is maximized by bringing together a set of GPUs under a rig dedicated to mining. This requires a motherboard and cooling system, and GPUs in the rig must be connected to a stable internet connection at all times. In addition, each crypto miner is required to be a member of an online crypto mining pool.


ASIC chips are designed with a specific purpose, such as audio processing or managing a cellphone call. In this case, ASIC is designed to mine a specific cryptocurrency. This method can produce more cryptocurrency units than GPUs, but it’s also more costly.

Building Wealth


As with any financial endeavor, the goal of crypto mining is to ensure that the cryptocurrency you mine is worth more than what you spend on mining it. Because mining crypto is expensive, those margins can get pretty tight.

ASIC computers are designed specifically for mining cryptocurrency, and therefore have an edge over GPU in terms of cost efficiency and potential profits. That’s why ASIC computers comprise the majority of mining power on most blockchains, including Bitcoin. ASIC mining is made to mine using a particular algorithm, for a specific type of cryptocurrency. For example, there are those who might buy ASIC hardware that can mine coins that use the same algorithm as Bitcoin, but it is more likely that it will be used for mining Bitcoin.

Cloud Mining

Cloud mining has become an increasingly popular alternative to GPU and ASIC because it’s less expensive. With cloud mining, miners can leverage the power of large corporations and dedicated crypto mining facilities. You can identify both free and paid cloud mining hosts online and rent a mining rig for a specific amount of time, making it a way to mine cryptocurrencies as hands-off as possible.

Who Mines Cryptocurrency?

Miners are the folks who solve computational puzzles to add new blocks to the blockchain. Those who don’t have a lot of computing power often join mining pools to earn a solid source of income.

You can mine independently, but you’ll have a much smaller chance of solving a block on the chain. The potential upside is, you get the full crypto reward without having to split it with anyone else.

Benefits and Drawbacks of Crypto Mining

The obvious benefit of mining for cryptocurrency is that you can make money off it. In some cases, the financial haul is substantial. Look no further than a pair of young Texas siblings — 14-year-old Ishaan Thakur and his 9-year-old sister Aanya — who have earned more than $30,000 a month mining Bitcoin, Ether and Ravencoin.

The main drawback is that it also costs a lot of money to mine crypto, both in terms of the hardware you need to purchase and the amount of electricity required to mine for it. This makes it difficult to turn a profit unless you are very good at it.

Another drawback is the environmental impact. As The New York Times reported, the process of creating Bitcoin consumes about 91 terawatt-hours of electricity a year – more than is used by Finland, a nation of about 5.5 million people.

Our in-house research team and on-site financial experts work together to create content that’s accurate, impartial, and up to date. We fact-check every single statistic, quote and fact using trusted primary resources to make sure the information we provide is correct. You can learn more about GOBankingRates’ processes and standards in our editorial policy.

About the Author

Vance Cariaga is a London-based writer, editor and journalist who previously held staff positions at Investor’s Business Daily, The Charlotte Business Journal and The Charlotte Observer. His work also appeared in Charlotte Magazine, Street & Smith’s Sports Business Journal and Business North Carolina magazine. He holds a B.A. in English from Appalachian State University and studied journalism at the University of South Carolina. His reporting earned awards from the North Carolina Press Association, the Green Eyeshade Awards and AlterNet. In addition to journalism, he has worked in banking, accounting and restaurant management. A native of North Carolina who also writes fiction, Vance’s short story, “Saint Christopher,” placed second in the 2019 Writer’s Digest Short Short Story Competition. Two of his short stories appear in With One Eye on the Cows, an anthology published by Ad Hoc Fiction in 2019. His debut novel, Voodoo Hideaway, was published in 2021 by Atmosphere Press.

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